The first tutorial explains why and when to cite your sources when writing a paper. The second tutorial defines plagiarism and academic dishonesty and explains how to avoid doing either of them.
APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association to guide authors who submit journal articles or book manuscripts to be published by the association. The style has been adopted by other disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences.
Official APA.org Style Help (6th edition):
APA style calls for these basic pieces of information in all citations: author, publication year, and document title. In addition, journal articles and magazines, require a volume number and sometimes the issue number, as well as article page range. Citations to book chapters require the title of the book in which the chapter is published, and the chapter page range. Also, book citations include the place of publication and publisher. Online resources include a DOI or URL.
* Solutions for missing information (from the APA Style Blog)
A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.
Examples below are very basic formats that illustrate how to cite articles, books, chapters, and web sites in the reference list and in-text using APA Style. Refer to more detailed APA Style resources (handbooks and online tools) for additional publication types or for publications that have missing or non-standard information.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of the article. Title
of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. doi:10.xxxx/xxxx.xxx
Mazalin, D. & Klein, B. (2008). Social anxiety and the Internet: Positive and negative effects.
E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(2): 43-50. Retrieved from
(Mazalin & Klein, 2008)
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location:
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal
publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
(Cafee & Valencia, 1991)
ARTICLE OR CHAPTER FROM AN EDITED BOOK
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B.
Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
Dunn, D. S., Halonen, J. S., & Smith, R. A. (Eds.). (2008). Teaching critical thinking in
psychology: A handbook of best practices. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Race: Understanding racism. Retrieved from
(American Psychological Association, n.d.)