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Research Guides

PSYC 107h Intro to Psychology (honors)

Library Books on APA Style (print)

When to Cite / Avoiding Plagiarism (Tutorials)

The first tutorial explains why and when to cite your sources when writing a paper. The second tutorial defines plagiarism and academic dishonesty and explains how to avoid doing either of them.

Official APA Style Help

APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association to guide authors who submit journal articles or book manuscripts to be published by the association.  The style has been adopted by other disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences.

Official Style Help (6th edition):


APA style calls for these basic pieces of information in all citations: authorpublication year, and document title.  In addition, journal articles and magazines, require a volume number and sometimes the issue number, as well as article page range. Citations to book chapters require the title of the book in which the chapter is published, and the chapter page range. Also, book citations include the place of publication and publisher. Online resources include a DOI or URL.

  • Author format includes first author surname, then a comma, followed by first initial, a period, and middle initial (if applicable) and period.  Then insert the remaining authors, using the ampersand “&” before final author surname and initials.
  • List all author names for publications with one to seven authors; if more than seven authors, provide first six author names, followed by three ellipses, then the final author’s name.
  • If no author, move the title to the author position.
  • Then add the DOI number, if one has been assigned, starting with “doi:”  
  • If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing an online publication, insert “Retrieved from”, then use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the content. 
  • Indent the second line of the citation and double space.
  • Items in a reference list are alphabetized by author name.
  • For in-text citations (citing a reference within the text of your paper, sometimes called “parenthetical citation”) follow the author-date format.

*  Solutions for missing information (from the APA Style Blog)


A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

  • All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash.
  • The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations.
  • The suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards.
  • When DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources.
  • The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice

Examples below are very basic formats that illustrate how to cite articlesbookschapters, and web sites in the reference list and in-text using APA Style.  Refer to more detailed APA Style resources (handbooks and online tools) for additional publication types or for publications that have missing or non-standard information.


  • Start with the author surname, then add the publication year (in parentheses) followed by a period. For newspaper or magazine articles, add a comma after the year and insert the month and date).
  • Add the title of the article in sentence-case, meaning that only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized; if there is a subtitle, capitalize the first word and proper names; followed by a period.
  • The periodical title (name of the journal, magazine, or newspaper) is in title case, meaning that all significant words are capitalized, followed by a comma, then the volume number which, and then a comma.  Italicize both the title and volume number.  
  • Add the issue number (in parentheses) followed by a comma [only if each issue starts with page 1 – which is not typical; most journals number their pages consecutively from issue 1 through the last issue published in that specific year].
  • For journal or magazine articles, add the range of page numbers, then end with a period. For newspaper articles, precede the page numbers with “pp.”.
  • Then add the DOI number, if one has been assigned to the article, starting with “doi: ”  
  • If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical. 

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of the article. Title

         of Periodical, volume number 
(issue number), pages. doi:10.xxxx/

Mazalin, D. & Klein, B. (2008). Social anxiety and the Internet: Positive and negative effects. 

         E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(2): 43-50. Retrieved from 

In-text Citation:   
(Mazalin & Klein, 2008)


  • Books generally follow the same format as an article, but also include location where book was published and publisher.
  • Author may be an individual or corporate author (company or sponsoring organization such as a federal government agency).
  • Location includes the city and two-letter state abbreviation.

Basic Format:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: 


Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal 

. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

In-text Citation
(Cafee & Valencia, 1991)


  • Book chapter citation generally follows the book citation format.
  • Add the chapter title following the publication year.
  • Then add the word “In” to signify that the chapter appears in a book.
  • Add the names of the book editors, followed by (Eds.), then a comma, followed by the title of the book in which the chapter appears.  Italicize the book title.
  • Add the chapter page range numbers in parentheses, then locationcolon, and publisher.

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. 

         Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Dunn, D. S., Halonen, J. S., & Smith, R. A. (Eds.). (2008). Teaching critical thinking in 

         psychology: A handbook of best practices
. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

In-text Citation
(Halonen, 2008)


  • If citing an entire website, not a specific document on the site, just mention the website name and URL in the text of within your paper.
  • If citing a specific page or document within a website, follow the standard author, date, title citation format, then add “Retrieved from”, followed by the URL.
  • When citing a web document that has multiple pages, provide the URL for the home page or entry page.
  • If no date available, use n.d.

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from 


American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Race: Understanding racism. Retrieved from 

In-text Citation
(American Psychological Association, n.d.)

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