Skip to main content

Research Guides

Information for Veterinary Professionals

Funding Statement

This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, under Contract No. HHSN-276-2011-00007-C with the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library.


Information in the pages about PubMed, My NCBI, and MeSH were adapted from:

Searching Veterinary Topics in Legacy PubMed (PM)

PubMed (PM) is the U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM) premiere search system for health information. It's freely available online and includes MEDLINE; indexing for about 110 veterinary and laboratory animal journals; citations for articles in process for MEDLINE indexing; more than 22 million citations overall in the biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life sciences journals, and online books.

Of the more than 5,200 journals indexed in PubMed, about 110 are veterinary and laboratory journals.


  • Not all years are indexed, especially older volumes
  • Includes animal-related articles in non-veterinary journals
  • Excludes many clinical and international veterinary journals

Legacy PubMed features include:

  • A veterinary science limit, which you can use as a search term, added to results as a a search limit, or added as a custom results filter
  • Sophisticated search capabilities, including: spell checker, advanced search builder, and automatic term mapping
  • Ability to customize your results display, receive email updates from saved searches and tables of contents using PubMed’s MyNCBI
  • Links to free and subscription full-text articles and information about library holdings
  • Links to other NLM products, including, MedlinePlus, and PubMed Central

What you can do with the results

Choose citations from your results to print, email, or download.

  • To print your citations: Select a format from "display settings" and print directly from your browser.
  • To email your citations: Go to "Send To", select "E-mail".
  • To download your citations to citation management software: Go to "Send To", select "citation manager".

Accessing full-text

Many PubMed citations offer links to an item’s full-text.

You can set up a free MyNCBI account and create a results filter to show which articles in your results are freely available.

You might have a link to:

  • The article at no cost
  • Free full-text subscriptions through your local library
  • Buy the article from the publisher.

Tip: Check with the library at your veterinary school because many have benefits for alumni and local practitioners. Also, check with your professional organizations and state associations because some provide literature searching and copies of articles for members.

For more information

Connect concepts using "AND" to make your search specific

You want to find citations for articles about cats.

More specifically cats and hypothyroidism.

More specifically cats and hyperthyroidism and treatments.

This is generally a more accurate search than using a phrase.
treating cats with hyperthyroidism

Enter keywords/search terms into the PubMed search box

You may enter them in any order.

Two or three terms are usually sufficient, e.g., [disease], [species], [other aspect, like diagnosis, treatment, etc.].

PubMed automatically connects the terms with "AND"


Add one or more species terms, e.g., (dogs OR cats).

Example 1

Step 1: You type fleas dogs ticks into the PubMed search box.

Step 2: PubMed connects the terms as: fleas AND dogs AND ticks PubMed automatically matches and maps the terms you typed in to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and synonyms the best way it can.

Step 3: PubMed runs the search as "siphonaptera" [MeSH Terms] OR "siphonaptera"[All Fields] OR "fleas"[All fields) AND ("dogs"[MeSH Terms] OR "dogs"[All Fields]) AND ("ticks"[MeSH Terms] OR "ticks"[All Fields])

Example 2

Step 1: You type Johne's Disease cattle

Step 2: PubMed recognizes Johne's Disease as a synonym for paratuberculosis

Step 3: PubMed runs the search as : ("paratuberculosis"[MeSH Terms] OR "paratuberculosis"[All Fields] OR ("johne's"[All Fields] AND "disease"[All Fields]) OR "johne's disease"[All Fields]) AND ("cattle"[MeSH Terms] OR "cattle"[All Fields])

Multiple AND/OR Relationships Between Subject Keywords or Phrases Using Boolean Connectors

Enter AND, OR, NOT in uppercase; use parenthesis to group similar topics or synonyms together.

Searching authors

Enter the author’s last name first, then second initials; no punctuation. Don’t use Jr., III, or anything similar.

Searching Subjects - Standardized Subject Headings

Use the pull-down menu to bring up MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) to:

  • Locate appropriate standardized Medical Subject Headings.
  • See brief descriptions or definitions of headings (like an online dictionary).
  • Show hierarchies or relationships between headings.
  • Build an effective MEDLINE search strategy using controlled vocabulary.
  • See an overview of article content perhaps not shown in articles title.

MeSH headings provide standardized subject indexing for MEDLINE. They minimize keyword or text term synonyms and other variations to increase search result consistency. To see MeSH headings applied to an article, at the end of each reference form the Abstract display setting click “+ MeSH Terms.”


Most recent (in process) articles don’t have subject headings until indexed.

Searching Combinations (Subject/Author/Journal)

Enter in any sequence. AND connector is assumed. NOT and OR connectors must be entered.

Search Symbols

Search symbols

Expert Tip

The Search Details box shows how PubMed interpreted your search. Click “See More” to view your entire search string and to edit your search.

The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM)’s National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides the free MyNCBI tool. MyNCBI allows registered users to set preferences across NCBI databases, and customize searches, results, and alerts.

MyNCBI Features in PubMed

  • Save searches, citation collections and/or author bibliographies.
  • Create and share collections of citations.
  • Set up automatic email updates for searches.
  • Select preconstructed filtering options to customize search results.
  • Use LinkOut to identify full-text articles available through local libraries.
  • Apply Site Preferences to change display fonts, highlight search terms, and share filter settings.

To Register

Click MyNCBI in the top right of any PubMed page to register.

NCBI Site Preferences

Includes Common Preferences across NCBI databases and for popular NCBI products, including PubMed.

PubMed Preferences

Change Abstract Supplemental Data to open. This will display Medical Subject Headings, publication type, etc

Change Results Display from Summary to Abstract, from 20 to 200, from recently added to pub date.

Saving Searches

Save search strategies to retrieve later or run at determined intervals and emailed to the user:

1.   Run a search in PubMed.
2.   Click the Save Search link.
3.   Sign in (if necessary) to MyNCBI.
4.   In MyNCBI Saved Searches, change the search’s name (if desired).
5.   Click Save.
6.   Select your preferences:

  • Email update options: Must have a verified email address; select if and how often to send updates.
  • Formats: Select text or hyperlinked.
  • Number of items: Begin with a high number and reduce as necessary.
  • Optional: Check Send when there aren’t any new results to confirm the search is running properly.

7.   Click Save.

Accessing/Modifying Saved Searches

While logged in:

1.   Click the MyNCBI link.

2.   Click Manage Saved Searches below the Saved Searches box.

3.   Click the box beside the name of the search you're interested in.

You can:

  • Delete the search;
  • Click What's new to see any new items in the search; or
  • Click the gear icon to change the automatic email settings, schedule searches, or delete the search.

Expert Tips

In MyNCBI Preferences:

  • Set highlighting to a color instead of the default bold. This will help you see you search terms quickly in each result.
  • Turning on Auto Suggest displays suggestions as you type in the search box. This is most helpful when searching authors because it can display name variants.
  • Open Supplemental Data results display -- abstracts 200 by publication date.

Use Saved Searches to keep up to date with tables of contents, and topics or species of interest.

For More Information

Skip to searching with MeSH.

The National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the controlled vocabulary used to index articles in MEDLINE. MEDLINE is a part of PubMed.

MeSH terms provide a consistent way to describe information. Often concepts are accurately described with many terms; MeSH pulls them together.


  • Can search MeSH database.
  • Contains nearly 27,000 descriptors.
  • Updated weekly; reviewed annually.
  • Search the MEDLINE citations in PubMed using MeSH terms.
  • Focus searches using a MeSH major topic as a search term.
  • Use MeSH hierarchy to broaden or narrow a search.
  • Use search builder function to build a PubMed search.

Major Topic Headings

During indexing, subject analysts at the National Library of Medicine examine each article to assign the most specific MeSH terms applicable. About 10-12 headings per citation are assigned. An asterisk next to the MeSH term designates a major topic. Articles can have no more than 5 major topics.

Click MeSH Terms, etc. Then in the abstract format, below the citation, click the plus icon beside “Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances.”

In the MeSH database, use Restrict to MeSH Major Topic to limit a search to citations where the heading is a major focus of the article.


Subheadings help describe an aspect of a subject more completely. The MeSH database presents subheadings logically pair with main headings.

Not every subheading will apply to every MeSH term.

In the MeSH database, check the boxes for the subheadings you want to search, then click Add to search builder with OR to build your search.

MeSH Subheadings and their Abbreviations

Veterinary-related subheadings are emphasized.

List is alphabetical by subheading.

Abbreviation Subheading
AB Abnormalities
AD Administration and dosage
AE Adverse effects
AG Agonists
AA Analogs and derivatives
AN Analysis
AH Anatomy and histology
AI Antagonists and inhibitors
BI Biosynthesis
BS Blood supply
BL Blood
CF Cerebrospinal fluid
CS Chemical synthesis
CI Chemically induced
CH Chemistry
CL Classification
CO Complications
CN Congenital
CT Contraindications
CY Cytology
DF Deficiency
DI Diagnosis
DU Diagnostic use
DH Diet therapy
DE Drug effects
DT Drug therapy
EC Economics
ED Education
EM Embryology
EN Enzymology
EP Epidemiology
ES Ethics
EH Ethnology
ET Etiology
GE Genetics
GD Growth and development


IM Immunology
IN Injuries
IR Innervation
IS Instrumentation
IP Isolation and purification
LJ Legislation and jurisprudence
MA Manpower
ME Metabolism
MT Methods
MI Microbiology
MO Mortality
NU Nursing
OG Organization and administration
PS Parasitology
PY Pathogenicity
PA Pathology
PK Pharmacokinetics
PD Pharmacology
PP Physiopathology
PO Poisoning
PC Prevention and control
PX Psychology
RE Radiation effects
RA Radiography
RI Radionuclide imaging
RT Radiotherapy
RH Rehabilitation
SC Secondary
SE Secretion
ST Standards
SN Statistics and numerical data
SD Supply and distribution
SU Surgery
TU Therapeutic use
TH Therapy
TO Toxicity
TM Transmission
TR Transplantation
TD Trends
US Ultrasonography
UL Ultrastructure
UR Urine
UT Utilization
VE Veterinary
VI Virology

Non-Exploding Subheadings

Note: The veterinary subheading does not explode.

List is alphabetical by subheading.

Abbreviation Subheading
CL Classification
DE Drug effects
ED Education
ES Ethics
HI History
IN Injuries
IS Instrumentation
MT Methods
PY Pathogenicity
PX Psychology
RE Radiation effects
VE Veterinary


MeSH Hierarchy



MeSH terms are arranged with more specific (narrower) terms arranged beneath broader terms. When you search a term in PubMed, it automatically searches the term and all narrower terms below it in the hierarchy.

To search for articles focusing only on the main term and remove articles focusing on narrower terms check “Do not include MeSH terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy.”

Note: You can use MeSH hierarchy to identify related broader or narrower terms to help focus a search or to find additional search terms. Click terms to access and use them in a search.

Qualifier Hierarchies/Families of Subheading Explosions

Searching first level subheadings searches the narrower subheadings (second and third levels). Emphasized terms are top level terms.

Abbreviation First level Second  level Third level
AE Adverse effects    
PO   Poisoning  
TO   Toxicity  
AN Analysis    
BL   Blood  
CF   Cerebrospinal fluid  
IP   Isolation and purification  
UR   Urine  
AH Anatomy and histology    
BS   Blood supply  
CY   Cytology  
PA     Pathology
UL     Ultrastructure
EM   Embryology  
AB     Abnormalities
IR   Innervation  
CH Chemistry    
AG   Agonists  
AA   Analogs and derivatives  
AI   Antagonists and inhibitors  
SC   Chemical synthesis  
CO Complications    
SC   Secondary  
CY Cytology    
PA   Pathology  
UL   Ultrastructure  
DI Diagnosis    
PA   Pathology  
RA   Radiography  
RI   Radionuclide imaging  
US   Ultrasonography  
EM Embryology    
AB   Abnormalities  
EP Epidemiology    
EH   Ethnology  
MO   Mortality  
ET Etiology    
CI   Chemically induced  
CO   Complications  
SC     Secondary
CN   Congenital  
EM   Embryology  
GE   Genetics  
IM   Immunology  
MI   Microbiology  
VI     Virology
PS   Parasitology  
TM   Transmission  
ME Metabolism    
BI   Biosynthesis  
BL   Blood  
CF   Cerebrospinal fluid  
DF   Deficiency  
EN   Enzymology  
PK   Pharmacokinetics  
UR   Urine  
MI Microbiology    
VI   Virology  
OG Organizations and administration    
EC   Economics  
LJ   Legislation and jurisprudence  
MA   Manpower  
ST   Standards  
SD   Supply and distribution  
TD   Trends  
UT   Utilization  
PD Pharmacology    
AD   Administration and dosage  
AE   Adverse effects  
PO     Poisoning
TO     Toxicity
AG   Agonists  
AI   Antagonists and inhibitors  
CT   Contraindications  

Diagnostic use

PK   Pharmacokinetics  
PH Physiology    
GE   Genetics  
GD   Growth and development  
IM   Immunology  
ME   Metabolism  
BI     Biosynthesis
BL     Blood
CF     Cerebrospinal fluid
DF     Deficiency
EN     Enzymology
PK     Pharmacokinetics
UR     Urine
PP   Physiopathology  
SE   Secretion  
SN Statistics and numerical data    
EP   Epidemiology  
EH     Ethnology
MO     Mortality
SD   Supply and distribution  
UT   Utilization  
SU Surgery    
TR   Transplantation  
TU Therapeutic use    
AD   Administration and dosage  
AE   Adverse effects  
CT   Contraindications  
PO   Poisoning  
TH Therapy    
DH   Diet therapy  
DT   Drug therapy  
NU   Nursing  
PC   Prevention and control  
RT   Radiotherapy  
RH   Rehabilitation  
SU   Surgery  
TR     Transplantation

Search PubMed with MeSH

Access MeSH in PubMed from the drop-down menu or click MeSH database from the PubMed home page or Advanced Search. Enter a topic into the Search bar and click the Search button. Possible results include:

  • A single fully displayed term
  • Several terms
  • A related term

Note: Always verify the definition of the term matches the expected

Using the Veterinary MeSH Subheading for Searching

To use the subheading, attach "/veterinary" to the end of a subject search term. For example:


In Advanced Searches

Use specific MeSH headings, subheadings, and qualifier codes to search PubMed directly.

For a complete list, go to PubMed Help and the Search Field Descriptions and Tags links.

  • MeSH Heading: Add [mh] or [MeSH] to a term to restrict a search to only MeSH terms.
  • Subheadings: You can use two letters for subheadings. Example: cancer/therapy =cancer/th
  • Use one subheading per term; use OR to combine additional subheadings. Example: (cancer/th OR neoplasms/an).
  • You can also “free float” headings [mh] and subheadings [sh]. Example: veterinary medicine [mh] AND genetics[sh]
  • Major Topics: Use [majr] to restrict a search to citations where the term is the major topic or focus of the article.
  • Do not include MeSH terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy: Use [mh:noexp], [majr:noexp], or [sh:noexp] to restrict searches to articles focusing on the broadest MeSH term.

Refine a Search

MeSH has options to clarify and focus searches. Click the selected MeSH title to see the fully displayed term, which includes:

  • Definition or scope note. Usually includes year introduced. Check boxes, which include:
  1. Subheadings
  2. Restrict Search to MeSH Major Topic.
  3. Do not include MeSH terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy.
  • Entry Terms -- similar terms an author used. See Also --related and linked terms MeSH hierarchy of linked terms.

Veterinary Subset

PubMed's veterinary subset helps when searching for veterinary medicine and animal health literature. It's also a filter option in PubMed and My NCBI.

To activate the veterinary subset in a PubMed search, in the search box, type:



Activate the veterinary science subset/filter in PubMed:

  1. Go to
  2. Toward the middle of the page, at the bottom of PubMed Tools, click Topic-Specific Queries.
  3. Scroll down to the bottom of Subjects.
  4. Click Veterinary Science.


Activate the veterinary science filter in PubMed using MyNCBI.

Clinical Queries

When you search PubMed Clinical Queries -- for example, with a disease and species -- three columns appear:

  • Clinical Study Categories. You can choose a category and scope using drop-down boxes.
  • Systematic Reviews.
  • Medical Genetics. You can choose a topic using a drop-down box.

You can use this as a short-cut to find clinical research studies for evidence-based medicine or you can use Limits or Filters.

Expert Tip

Use certain publication types or Clinical Queries to search for evidence-based medicine topics.

Species Indexing Terms

Listed alphabetically.

Index Term Includes
amphibians all types, including frogs and salamanders
animals any non-human animal
birds all types, including poultry, raptors, and psittacines
carnivora bears, cats, ferrets, foxes, otters, lions, raccoons, wolves, etc.
cattle cow, cows, bovine, calf, calves, heifer
cats cat,  feline, kitten, kittens, queen
cetacea dolphins, porpoises, whales, etc.
dogs dog, canine, puppy, puppies, bitch
goats goat, caprine, kid, kids, etc.
guinea pigs guinea pig, cavia, cavies
fishes all types, including salmon, trout
horses horse, equine, stallion, mare, mares, foal, foals, filly, gelding
human homo sapiens, man (male or female), humans
insectivora hedgehogs, moles, shrews
mice mouse, all genetic types (nude, inbred)
palaeognathae ratites, emus, ostriches, rheas
poultry includes chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys
primates human and non-human primates (since 2004). For non-human primates: Enter each type (lemur, colobus, gorilla, etc.).
psittaformes parakeets, cockatiels, parrots, etc.
rabbits rabbit, bunnies
raptors eagles, hawks, owls
rodentia all types, including rats, mice, squirrels, woodchucks, etc.
rats rat, all types (including inbred)
reptiles all types, including alligators, lizards, snakes, turtles
ruminants all types, including buffalo, camels, cattle, deer, sheep
sheep ovine, ewe, etc.
swine pig, pigs, porcine, piglet, piglets, boar, boars, sow, sows, etc.

Indexing Terms for Animal Groups

Listed alphabetically.

Index Term Includes
animals, domestic

domesticated and farm species, including horses, livestock, and poultry (1963-2010)

animals, laboratory typical lab animals, including rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, etc.
animals, wild feral, wild, or non-domesticated animals
animals, zoo animals in zoos
livestock domestic farm animals, except poultry (2011+)
pets animals for companionship and enjoyment

Field Tags

Field tags are used in the search box with search terms:

Tag Searches Search Example
[ad] affiliation  
[aid] article identifier  
[all] all fields horses[all]
[au] author Breshears MA[au]
[auid] author identifier  
[book] book  
  comment corrections  
[cn] corporate author  
[crdt] create date  
[dcom] completion date  
[rn] EC/RN number  
[ed] editor  
[edat] Entrez date  
[filter] filter  
[1au] first author name Reichard MV[1au]
[fau] full author name  
[fir] full investigator name  
[gr] grant number  
[ir] investigator  
[isbn] ISBN  
[ip] issue  
[ta] OR [jour] journal j am vet res[ta], j am vet res[jour]
[la] language spanish[la]
[lastau] last author Little SE[lastau]
[lid] location ID  
[mhda] MeSHdate  
[majr] MeSH major topic  
[sh] MeSH sub-headings  
[mh] MeSH terms  
[lr] modification date  
[JID] NLM unique ID  
[ot] other term  
[pg] pagination  
[ps] personal name as subject krull wh[ps]
[pa] pharmacological action  
[pl] place of publication  
[PMID] PubMed ID number/UID  
[pubn] publisher  
[dp] publication date  
[pt] publication type  
[si] secondary source ID  
[sb] subset veterinary[sb]
[nm] supplementary concept  
[tw] text words  
[ti] title "American canine hepatozoonosis"[ti]
[tiab] title/abstract  
[tt] transliterated title  
[vi] volume  

More information about field tags is available at PubMed Help.

Available Subset Search Terms


Subset Available as filter under
AIDS aids [sb] Subjects
Bioethics bioethics [sb] Subjects
Cancer cancer [sb] Subjects
Complementary medicine cam [sb] Subjects
Dietary supplements dietsuppl [sb] Subject
Comparative effectiveness research effectiveness [sb]  
History of medicine history [sb] Subject
MEDLINE medline [sb] Journal categories
OLDMEDLINE oldmedline [sb]  
Research reporting guidelines and initiatives reportresearch [sb]  
Space life sciences space [sb]  
Systematic reviews systematic [sb] Article types; Subjects
Toxicology tox [sb] Subjects
Veterinary science veterinary [sb] Subjects
All citations in PubMed all [sb]  
Citations with links to free full-text articles free full text [sb]  
Citations with abstracts hasabstract [sb]  
Citations with structured abstracts hasstructuredabstract [sb]  
Citations with LinkOut links in PubMed loall [sb]  
LinkOut holdings in library loprov_____ [sb]; Example: loprovohioulib [sb]  
Free full-text article in PMC pubmed pmc [sb]  

Journal/Citation Subsets

Use jsubset with the code and without [sb]. Example: jsubsetAIM

Description Code Available as filter under Journal Categories
Abridged Index Medicus AIM Core clinical journals
Dentistry journals D Dentistry journals
Citations from bioethics journals or selected bioethics citations E  
Health administration journals; non-Index Medicus H  
Index Medicus journals IM  
Consumer health journals; non-Index Medicus K  
Nursing journals N Nursing journals
OLDMEDLINE citations from the Cumulated Index Medicus (CIM) and the Current List of Medical Literature (CLML) (1947-1965). OM  
History of medicine journals; selected citations from other journals Q  
Citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the history of medicine QIS  
Citations from space life sciences journal; selected citations from other journals S  
Health technology assessment journals; non-Index Medicus T  
AIDS/HIV journal; selected citations from other journals (1980-2000) X  

Citation Status Tags and their Search Terms

Status Tag Description Search Term
PubMed as supplied by publisher Citation as supplied by publisher, not yet indexed; perhaps E-Pub ahead of print publisher [sb]
PubMed as supplied by publisher E-Pub - citations available in advance of journal issue's print release pubstatusaheadofprint
PubMed in process Citation is in the review process inprocess [sb]
PubMed indexed for MEDLINE Fully indexed and cross-linked ciatations medline [sb]
PubMed OLDMEDLINE Pre-1966 citations not mapped to current MeSH oldmedline [sb]
PubMed Precessed; not indexed for MEDLINE pubmednotemedline [sb]
PubMed Author manuscript or publisher-supplied citation from non-MEDLINE journal submitted to PMC under the NIH Public Access Policy



PubMed Book and book citations available on the NCBI Bookshelf




Date-Related Field Tags


Description Search tag MEDLINE data element
Create date Date the citation record was first created; defaulted to publication date for older records [CRDT] CRDT
Publication date Date article was first published in either electronic or print format; default PubMed search [DP] or [PDAT] DP, DEP
Entrez date Date citation was added to PubMed; for records entering PubMed more than one year after publication date, EDAT is set to publication date [EDAT] EDAT
Electronic publication date Date article was published electronically; often in advance of availability [EPDAT] DEP
MeSH date Date MeSH terms were added to the citation [MHDA] MHDA
Print publication date Date of publication on the citation; print or electronic [PPDAT] DP

People-Related Field Tags


Description Search tag MEDLINE data element
Author Author/s [author] or [AU] AU, FAU
Corporate author Corporate or collective authorship [author-corporate] or [corporate author] or [CN] CN
Author identifier Unique identifier of an author, corporate, or investigator name, supplied by publisher [author-identifier] or [AUID] AUID
First author name First personal author name in a citation [author-first] or [first author] or [1AU] AU, FAU
Full author name Full author names since 2002 [author-full] or [full author] or [FAU] FAU
Last author name Last personal author name in a citation [author-last] or [last author] or [LASTAU] AU, FAU
Editor Editors for a book or chapter citations from NCBI Bookshelf [editor] or [ED] ED
Investigator NASA-funded principle investigator [investigator] or [IR] FIR, IR
Full investigator name Full investigator or collaborator name [investigator-full] or [FIR] FIR
Personal name as subject Individual is the subject of the article [PS] PS, FPS

Text-Related Field Tags


Description Search tag MEDLINE data element
Article identifier Article ID values supplied by the publisher; includes DOI codes - must use full code [AID] AID
Book Book citation title; must be exact [book] BTI
EC/RN number Enzyme Commission, CAS Registry number, or Unique Ingredient Identifiers (UNIIs) [ec/rn number] or [RN] RN
Grant number Research grant numbers and/ or contract numbers [grant number] or [GR] GR
Issue Number of the issue, part, or supplement [issue] or [IP] IP
ISBN ISBN for book or book chapters [ISBN] ISBN
NLM unique ID Unique journal ID in NLM's catalog [JID] JID
Journal title abbreviation May be used  with journal title, journal title abbreviation, ISSN, or JID [journal] or [TA] JT, TA, IS, JID
Pagination Full pagination, searches first page of citation [page] or [PG] PG
Publication place Journal's country of publication [PL] Pl
PubMed unique identifier Unique number (UID) assigned to each citation [PMID] PMID
PMC identifier Unique number assigned to item in PMC PMCnumber PMC
Publication type Type of material the work represents [publication type] or [PT] PT
Secondary source identifier Secondary source databanks and accession numbers (e.g. [SI] SI
Title Title of article [title] or [TI] TI
Text word PubMed identifies as text; does not search affiliation or journal fields [textword] or [TW] AB, MH, OT, RN, TI
Volume Volume number of the journal [volume] or [VI] VI
Publisher Publisher's name of citation on NCBI Bookshelf [publisher] or [PUBN] PB

Keyword Searching-Related Field Tags


Description Search tag MEDLINE data element
Filter Technical tags used by LinkOut; see also subsets [filter] ---
MeSH terms NLM's MeSH controlled vocabulary [mesh] or [MH] MH
MeSH major topic One of the main topics discussed in the article [mesh major topic] or [MAJR] MH
MeSH subheading Describe more complete an aspect of a subject [mesh subheading] or [SH] MH
Do not explode Use only the most general MeSH term without accessing the narrower terms below it [mh:noexp] or [sh:noexp] or [majr:noexp] ---
Other term Non-MeSH subject terms (e.g. author keywords) [other term] or [OT] OT
Subset Specified subset values [subset] or [SB] SB

More Searching Field Tags


Description Search tag MEDLINE data element
Language Language in which the article was published [language] or [LA] LA
Location identifier Location Id data from publishers; Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or other publisher ID [LID] LID
Owner+acronym Organization supplying citation data (i.e. NASA) ownernasa OWN
Pharmacological action MeSH term; substances known to have a particular pharmacologic action [pharmacological action] or [PA] MH, RN
Substance name Name of the chemical; includes supplementary concept terms; this search does not explode [substance] or [NM] RN
All fields Includes all searchable PubMed fields [all fields] or [ALL] ---

Queries and Interfaces on Special Queries


Available as filter under
ALTBIB (alternatives bibliography)  
CAM on PubMed  
Cancer topic searches  
Clinical queries  
Electronic health records  
Health disparities  
Health literacy  
Health services research (HSR) queries  
Healthy People 2020  
MedlinePlus health topics  
National Institutes of Health funding support  
Retracted publication Article types