Skip to main content

Research Guides

Health & Kinesiology


American Psychological Association (APA) Style

APA Style is a format developed by the American Psychological Association to standardize scientific writing.  It is most commonly used to cite sources within the social and behavioral sciences.  The library provides students and faculty complete access to the print and online editions of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Basic Rules and Principles

In-text Citations

  • In-text citations are used when a source is referred to in the body of a paper.  APA uses a parenthetical in-text citation, which contains the author's last name and the publication year.  

More than 9 million young people, ages 15-24, acquire a sexually transmitted infection each year in the United States (Smith, 2015).

Reference List

  • A list of sources cited is included at the end of a paper on a separate page.  Title the page "References" (top, center).  Arrange sources alphabetically by authors' last names.  

The basic format for an article in an online journal: 

  • Author's last name, author's initials.  (Publication year).  Title.  Journal name, volume (issue), inclusive pages.  doi

Smith, A.  (2015).  Sexual health education at a top American research university.  Journal of Public Health Studies, 2 (1), 100-103.  doi: 10.1002/cncr.29677

Note: All lines after the first line of your reference should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called a hanging indentation.  A hanging indent could not be accomplished with the software used to present this information.